Paget's disease, also called bone deforming arthritis is a chronic, incurable disease, a metabolic disorder , in the course of which the bone structure is disorganized and its strength is greatly reduced, which gives rise to distortion, deformation, and the increased risk of fracture.
Causes and occurrence
This disease was first described in 1876 by James Paget, and hence the origin of the name of the disease. The disease mainly affects people over 40 years of age, slightly more often men than women. The occurrence of the disease in young people is observed very rarely. The cause of the disease remains unknown. It is supposed that it may have a genetic background. Sometimes the appearance of Paget's disease is associated with a history of viral infection. According to the investigations carried out so far it results that approximately half of the surveyed persons was in the first line of relationship to a person suffering from Paget's disease. Sometimes the appearance of Paget's disease is also associated with a history of viral infection.
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The initial symptoms of Paget's disease is:
- the pain of bones and joints
- the increased body temperature in this area
- the reduced muscle strength
- numbness and tingling of the limbs
Lesions most commonly affect the bones of the:
- the humerus
- skull and lumbar spine
Along with the development of the disease the changes worsen , leading to distortion and deformation conducive to the occurrence of fractures and the inflammation of joints. The damage in the areas affected by the disease is typically accompanied by the profuse bleeding . The symptoms are non-specific, to bring a full diagnosis, a series of laboratory tests and imaging are performed. The most important of these are:
- X-ray examination
- bone biopsy
- computer tomography of the bones
- MRI of the bones
Sometimes Paget's disease is asymptomatic and detected incidentally during an x-ray performed for example after bone fracture.
How does Paget's disease affect the condition of the joints
With the development of the disease, the changes deepen, leading to distortion and deformation favoring fractures as well as the formation of arthritis. Damage in places affected by the disease usually progresses with heavy bleeding. Paget's disease can also lead to degenerative arthritis. Lasting inflammation affects the quality of synovial fluid, thus nourishing the articular cartilage. It can cause premature wear of the joint. If the disease process occupies long bones, they may bend, which will result in improper positioning of the articular surface. When the diseased bones are thickened, the space between the joints is decreased and articular surfaces are damaged. This causes additional pain and also leads to the development of degenerative changes.
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The cause of the disease is unknown. There are also no specific recommendations that can prevent the occurrence of the disease. It is essential to see a specialist in the shortest possible time from the moment of occurrence of the first symptoms, or noticing unusual symptoms.