"I can sleep peacefully all night and it has not been possible before. What is important, with Hyalutidin, there was no stomach discomfort, which is important in pharmacological treatment. The product is well worth the money. "

Wanda Bąk

"After 30 days of starting supplementation, we observed a significant reduction in unpleasant knee friction. Moreover, the patient also stopped complaining about knee pain. The above case encouraged me to further recommend Hyalutidin to patients undergoing rehabilitation. "

Łukasz Hawełka

" My 82-year-old father-in-law after a month's treatment forgot about pain and restored his mobility, so I can recommend this preparation with a clear conscience."

Jerzy Skarżyński

Knee and feet joints

The knee joint (lat. articulatio genus) is the largest joint of a man at the same time due to its location and construction, it is most vulnerable to injuries. The knee is a variation of the hinge joint and it connects the thigh of the leg with the shank.

Construction of the knee

Fig.1 Construction of the knee joint

 

On one hand, the knee must be very supple and flexible in order to perform both horizontal and vertical movement; on the other hand it must be strong and resistant to the overload, since it bears the whole body weight during walking. The strongest muscle of the knee joint is the quadriceps muscle, which serves as the main stabilizer.

 

The knee joint socket consists of the slightly concave condyles of the tibia and the articular surface of patella, whereas its head is formed with the convex condyles of the femur.

The femur and the tibia are attached to each other by:

  • the articular surface of the lateral epicondyle of the tibia with the lateral epicondyle of the femur
  • the articular surface of the medial epicondyle of the tibia with the medial epicondyle of the femur
  • the patella is attached to the femoral bone (femoropatellar joint)
  • the lateral patellar surface with the lateral epicondyle of the femur
  • the lateral patellar surface with the medial epicondyle of the femur

 

The two discs, called menisci, are located in the knee joint. They serve to integrate the articular surfaces during movement. Mechanically, they belong to the ginglymoid joints, which enable flexion and extension, as well as the rotation when the joint is flexed.

 

The joint is reinforced with ligaments: 

  • the external: the collateral ligaments and the capsular ligament
  • the internal: the anterior cruciate ligament ACL) and the posterior cruciate ligament.(PCL)

 

Bursa mucosa in the knee joint

The knee joint is a complex joint, exposed to the permanent motion; therefore  it needs to be regularly provided with the synovial fluid. In the knee joint area, a few bursa mucosa which supply the knee joint with the synovial fluid can be distinguished:

  • Supra-patellar bursa
  • Subtendinous bursa of Gastrocnemius
  • Subtendious prepatellar bursa
  • Popliteal bursa
  • Subtucaneous prepatellar bursa
  • Semimembranosus bursa
  • Deeo infrapatellar bursa

 

The knee is the largest joint in the human body and is exposed to the greatest loads. Therefore, it should be cared for by proper supplementation of low levels of synovial fluid and nourishing articular cartilage.

 

 

Semilunar cartilage - Menisci

Semilunar cartilage (Latin: menisci) consists of fibrocartilaginous tissue and it acts to facilitate the functioning of the knee. The meniscus is a C-shaped (semilunar) structure of fibrocartilage. The two menisci, concavely shaped, form the shallow cavities, bearing up the spherical articular surface of the condyles of the femur. The menisci are movable, when we  bend the knee meniscus they move back and when we straighten it, they move forward. We distinguish the following meniscus:

  • side (meniscus lateralis) - shorter and more curved than the medial one, partly 'stuck' to the medial intercondylar tubercle
  • medial (meniscus medialis) - wider than the lateral meniscus, but longer with a greater arc

Superior view of the right knee

 

 

The articular capsule

The knee joint is a complex joint, exposed to the permanent motion; therefore  it needs to be regularly provided with the synovial fluid. In the knee joint area, a few bursa mucosa which supply the knee joint with the synovial fluid can be distinguished:

  • Supra-patellar bursa
  • Subtendinous bursa of Gastrocnemius
  • Subtendious prepatellar bursa
  • Popliteal bursa
  • Subtucaneous prepatellar bursa
  • Semimembranosus bursa
  • Deeo infrapatellar bursa

 

The articular capsule consists of two layers: 

  • the outer membrane of the fiber
  • the internal synovial membrane

In the middle, between the two layers, there is a so-called infrapatellar fatty body, whose task is to fill the space formed during the movement of the knee. The knee is also enhanced by external ligaments

 

Ligaments of the knee

Extra-capsular ligament
The collateral  ligaments support the functioning of the knee on both sides. They are taut and they stretch during extension, thereby ensuring the stability of the joint. With the flexed knee, the collateral ligaments remain relaxed, allowing the slight rotation.  Also, the knee abduction and adduction movements are made  possible due to the ligaments:

  • Medial collateral ligament (MCL - tibial) )- reduces the excessive external rotation of the tibia, and  the valgus knee deformity
  • Lateral collateral ligament (LCL - fibular) - reduces the varus knee deformity

 

Patellar ligaments

  • Patellar ligament - one of the knee ligaments located in  the central part of the common tendon of the common Quadriceps femoris muscle
  • Patellar retinaculum - formed as the extension of the medial and lateral  head fibers of the Quadriceps femoris muscle

 

The ligaments connected with meniscus (semilunar cartilage)
Transverse ligament of knee, which offers stability to the menisci during the rotation movement in the knee joint:

  • Posterior meniscofemoral ligament
  • Anterior meniscofemoral ligament

 

Inter-capsular  ligaments

  • Posterior cruciate ligament - prevents the excessive posterior displacement of   the tibia relative to the femur and it limits the maximum flexion and extension
  • Anterior cruciate ligament - limits the excessive flexion, extension and it protects  valgus knee  (Genu valgum ) and varus knee (genu varum)  from deformity during the knee movement.

 

Muscles

The muscles pay a major role in producing  and controlling movement, and they also serve as  active  stabilizers. The Quadriceps femoris muscle is particularly important as the powerful extensor of the knee joint and its stabilizer on the saggital plane. Its main antagonists, that is, the hamstring muscles, are the biceps femoris and the  semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles which extend the knee.

 

Knee construction

 

The most common injuries of the knee

One of the most common injuries are the injuries of the knee ligaments, resulting from twisting. They may occur along with other damages to the body as a result of so called multiply injuries. One of the consequences of the ligament injury is the loss of the knee stability. The knee instability is the condition when, as a result of injury, the knee shows the excessive mobility as compared to the physiological state. 

 

The injury in anterior cruciate ligament

Most commonly, the injury occurs in anterior cruciate ligament which constitutes the large part of the major elements responsible both for the knee stability and for the prevention of the anterior displacement of the tibia relative to the femur. The damage to this structure leads to the serious disorders of the gait and walking pattern, caused by the atrophy of the Quadriceps femoris muscle and the impairment of the knee-locking mechanisms. Also, the disturbance in the deep sensation appears as one of the syndromes.

 

Characteristic crunching in the knee represents a disorder in its functioning. It is advisable report to a specialist immediately to determine the source of these ailments.

 

 

The menisci injuries

The menisci are exposed to injuries mainly as the effect of the uncontrolled twisting or turning of the shank with the flexed knee joint. It mostly occurs during sport activities (skiing, football, volleyball), while performing the physical work (the injury of the lateral surface of the knee joint) or even as a result of the trivial housework ( rising from the squatting position). Moreover, the knee instability caused by the cruciate ligaments injuries may predispose to the meniscus tear.

 

The injuries of the articular cartilage

The injuries that can occur to the articular cartilage are often the result of the knee instability, and they frequently follow the meniscus tear. Also, the damage of the articular cartilage is often associated with the intra-articular fractures of the knee and other knee contusions (bruised knee).
The articular cartilage degeneration also occurs as a result of:

  • osteoarthritis
  • rheumatoid diseases and other conditions.

 

One of the most detrimental factor contributing to the articular cartilage disorders is overweight.

 

 

Meniscus tear and treatment

Fig.5 Meniscus tear and treatment

 

 

The Joints of the Foot

The following joints are included in the foot:

  • The talocrural joint (the ankle joint) - connecting the shinbone with the tarsal bone
  • The intertarsal joints
  • The joints between the bones of the tarsal and metatarsal
  • The joints between the bones of the metatarsal
  • The metatarsophalangeal joints

Knee joint

Fig.6 Knee joint construction

 

The following joints are crucial for the movement of foot:

  • the talocrural joint ( the ankle joint), which allows the upward movement of the foot (dorsiflexion) and downward movement of the foot (plantar flexion)
  • the transverse tarsal joint which connects the talus bone with the calcaneus and the navicular bones- this joint, in turn, allows the inversion and eversion movement of the foot.

 

The foot reaches three degrees of freedom of movement, like in the enarthrodial joint, by the combined effort of the talocrural joint and the transverse tarsal joint.

 

The talocrural joint is connected by numerous ligaments:

  • between the tibia and fibula bone, the tibiofibular syndesmosis is located the deltoid ligament
  • on the medial side (superficial and deep of fibres)on the lateral side the anterior tibiofibular ligament (ATFL), calcaneofibular ligament (CFL), posterior tibiofibular ligament (PTFL) are located.

All these elements are surrounded by shin muscles, which actively stabilize the ankle joint.

This joint is extremely exposed to traumatic injuries during sports, so the injuries of the ankle are the most common ones in numerous sports.

 

By supplementing the basic ingredients that build the joints, that is hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate, we ensure maintaining them in a healthy condition for longer. The higher the concentration of ingredients, the better the effect of using supplementation.

 

 

The most common injuries of the ankle

The most common injury of ankle is an excessive inversion - colloquially speaking, the twisted ankle or the sprained ankle. It is usually the result of incorrect putting the foot on the ground. The damage of the ligamentous--capsular apparatus mostly refers to the lateral stabilizers of joint, and it often occurs when the leg hits the ground on the outer edge of foot (so called supination-adduction mechanism). It comprises 85% of all injuries of joint. The damage of medial side is caused by the foot forcefully hitting the ground on the inner edge of foot - the pronation-abduction mechanism. This injury commonly occurs in footballers.

 

  • Inflammation of the plantar fascia -  is often seen in athletes practicing the discipline associated with  running or long-distance gait. The causes of  the inflammation of the fascia can be the repetitive micro-injuries of tendons and nerves associated with the heel hitting the ground. It may be followed by the occurrence of  degenerative changes.
  • Hallux valgus - also known as halluksy, mostly affects  adults, especially women. This is the deformation of the foot, resulting in the finger deviating towards its outer edge and the metatarsal bone deviating on the inner side. Deformation arises in the form of cosmetically disturbing bulge (bunion) This is often the cause of unpleasant symptoms (such as burning, tumefaction , pain). Halluksy, when untreated over time,  may cause problems with mobility, in addition to the difficulties in  selecting the appropriate footwear.
  • Morton’s neuroma - This is a disease manifested by pain of common plantar digital nerves. The disease is caused by the  pressure of the plantar nerve innervating the toes which passes through the transverse metatarsal ligament.

 

Hyalutidin HC Aktiv contains 15000mg of components building the joints, that is hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate. In addition, the liquid form provides absorption in the range of about 100%.

 

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